The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is an annual legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. Its different types arvariously known as gram or Bengal gram, garbanzo or garbanzo bean, or Egyptian pea. Chickpea seeds are high in protein. It is one of the earliest cultivated legumes, and 9500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East.
The larger, also known as the garbanzo bean or hoummus, was introduced into India in the 18th century.
Desi chana as called in north india or called Boot in Eastern India (Assam, parts of Bihar) has small, darker seeds and a rough coat. They are grown mostly in India and other parts of the Indian subcontinent, as well as in Ethiopia, Mexico, and Iran. Desi means “country” or “native” in Hindi-Urdu; its other names include kala chana (“black chickpea” in Hindi-Urdu) or chholaa boot or Boot in Assamese. Desi chana can be black, green or speckled. This variety is hulled and split to make chana dal, Kurukshetra Prasadam (channa laddu),. Bootor Daali.
Garbanzo beans or ‘kabuli’ chana are lighter-coloured, larger, and with a smoother coat, and are mainly grown in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, South America, and the Indian subcontinent. The name means “from Kabul” in Hindi-Urdu, and this variety was thought to come from Kabul, Afghanistan, when it was introduced to India in the 18th century
An uncommon black chickpea, ceci neri, is grown only in Apulia and Basilicata, in southern Italy. It is around the same size as garbanzo beans, being both larger and darker than the ‘desi’ variety.